If you are new to homeschooling or even just doing a bit of research, I encourage you to check out the Home School Legal Defense Association. This site is full of research and information about homeschooling throughout the United States.
My homeschooling experience (as well as my public and private school teaching experience) has all been in the state of Georgia, so I cannot advise you as to how other states’ laws affect individual homeschool situations. I wish I could, but would be remiss if I tried to do so.
My best advice for getting started is this: Do a Google search of “homeschool laws in X” with X being the state you live in. In Georgia, there is a statewide association with a website full of loads of good information, they are called the GHEA and their site can be found here.
Through various searches, I have found an abundance of free, valuable information on the internet. If you can’t find what you are looking for, keep looking!
Here are a list of sites that I have found useful: (in progress)